Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is a combination of approximately 95% stone, sand or gravel bound together by asphalt binder, a byproduct of crude oil. HMA is mixed, placed and compacted at elevated temperatures, hence the name. It is typically applied in 4-8 inch thick layers, with the lower layers acting to support the top layer, known as the surface or friction course. The aggregates in the lower layers are chosen to prevent rutting and failure and are typically larger in size. The aggregates in the surface course are chosen for their friction properties and durability and are typically smaller in size.
Common uses of asphalt include highways, airfields, parking lots, recreational (bikeways, tennis courts, tracks).
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